Woakes was 120 not out, having shared a partnership of 189 with Jonny Bairstow (93) that was an England record for the sixth wicket in Test matches against India, beating the 171 put on by Ian Botham and Bob Taylor at Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1980.
The second session will be vital with India still looking to get early wickets to keep England's first-innings lead to a minimum.
Woakes breezed past his previous Test-best score of 66 and eventually overtook Bairstow.
Virat Kohli was trapped in an almighty mix-up as the Indian captain's blunder led to Cheteshwar Pujara being run out as India were skittled for 107 by England on day two of the second test at Lord's on Friday (Saturday NZ time).
After a delay of more than two hours, the players returned for 12 balls, during which Kohli and Pujara groped around trying to find the ball as Anderson and Stuart Broad terrorised them under leaden skies.
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Was a menace throughout until he was replaced with 15 minutes to play. "The first half was hard. The best capacity was to suffer, but then I think the second half maybe they were exhausted ".
Jimmy Anderson showed he remains a deadly proposition in English conditions taking 5-20 as England bowled out India for a miserly 107 on the second day of the second Test at Lord's, but it was a "selfish" move from Virat Kohli that had Indian fans up in arms.
Ishant Sharma, whose Test-best seven for 44 against England sealed India's 95-run win in the corresponding Lord's clash four years ago, bowled the first over. Five balls later Jennings " s fellow left-handed opener Alastair Cook (21) was out as well, caught behind off a superb Sharma delivery from around the wicket that squared him up and seamed away before finding the outside edge.
The exit of England " s all-time leading Test run-scorer meant 20-year-old debutant batsman Ollie Pope walked out with the hosts in trouble at 32 for two off 8.2 overs. He got off the mark with a four and looked composed throughout out his innings of 28 before he was LBW to Hardik Pandya (one for 16).
Jos Buttler (24) got in and got out before he too fell lbw aiming across the line as Shami took a third wicket this innings.
Even though Bairstow was the more senior of the pair, it was Woakes who looked the more impressive, driving, cutting and pulling the ball with authority around the Lord's outfield. The all-rounder, who was included in the playing XI to replace Ben Stokes, slammed his maiden Test hundred.