However, the procedure can be bypassed with an agreement from all 100 senators - but Paul would not join the gang.
While you were sleeping soundly early Friday, the government briefly shutdown for the second time in three weeks.
Paul took to the Senate floor many times on Thursday refusing to agree to move up the time for a vote in the chamber on the bill, which requires unanimous consent. It would only keep the government running for six weeks, while Congress tries again to put together a budget deal that would not end until September 30, the end of the fiscal year.
The two-year budget deal lifts the Budget Control Act's caps to allow for almost $300 billion more in discretionary spending, directed to both defense and nondefense funding priorities. Senator Paul says he objects to the $400 billion price tag for the two-year spending deal.
Many Democrats support the budget deal, but were unhappy with the compromise because it doesn't tackle immigration - specifically addressing the plight of DREAMers, including the roughly 700,000 immigrants who are in the US illegally after being brought to the country as children and who are enrolled in the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which is set to expire on March 5.
The White House's current proposal - one that would put 1.8 million immigrants on a path to citizenship, but also boost border security, and dramatically curtail legal immigration - has been panned by Democrats.
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Paul railed against members of both parties, including Republicans for what he termed hypocrisy over concern about deficit spending.
The partial shutdown in late January lasted for two full days and part of a third.
Speaker of the House Paul Ryan's Republicans needed help from Democrats to pass the bill.
The bill also provides $90 billion for disaster relief following the extreme hurricanes and wildfires this past year.
"Now we have Republicans hand in hand with Democrats offering us trillion-dollar deficits".
The bill passed Friday does not address immigration issues, which have become a sticking point between Democrats and Republicans including President Trump, who has demanded money for a border wall with Mexico.
House Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., came out against the agreement on Wednesday because Speaker of the House Paul Ryan did not give a commitment to also bring up an immigration bill.