Early Friday morning marked the second time in less than a month that the United States government has shut down after failing to meet a midnight deadline, despite Senate leaders coming to a bipartisan agreement to fund the government.
Just a few hours before the deadline, Paul took to the Senate floor to demand a vote on an amendment to keep budget caps in place, then launched into a filibuster that lasted into the small hours of the morning.
The bill passed in a 240-186 vote in the House early morning despite opposition from most Democrats, who had sought a firmer commitment from Speaker Paul Ryan that he will bring immigration legislation to the floor for a vote that would protect immigrants who came to the USA as children from deportation.
The deal, the fifth temporary government funding measure for the fiscal year that began October 1, replenishes federal coffers until March 23, giving lawmakers more time to write a full-year budget.
Many government agencies close during a shutdown as their future funding is theoretically not secure.
Pa. Republican leaders meet challenge to redraw congressional districts
The state's congressional districts are considered among the most gerrymandered in the United States. The districts comply with the Voting Rights Act. "Confusion for voters has been minimized".
But the dramatics in Congress spoke volumes about the political gridlock that defines Washington.
Senate Democrats sparked a three-day partial government shutdown last month by filibustering a spending bill, seeking relief for "Dreamer" immigrants who've lived in the country illegally since they were children. The Republican Party, traditionally the party of pared-back government and sensible debt levels, is now overseeing an astonishing increase in federal spending. Now that Republicans are in control, however, they themselves want to pass a bill that experts say will result in a $1 trillion deficit.
Moving legislation swiftly through the upper chamber of Congress requires consent by all 100 members, but Mr Paul objected.
Republican Representative Kristi Noem told Reuters she voted against the bill because it raises non-defense spending and extends the federal borrowing authority.
The budget agreement, which was negotiated by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, includes more defense spending and billions more in domestic investments.
The Senate had already approved the bipartisan spending legislation that will extend funding to the government through March 23 and boost disaster aid funding by around $90 billion for Texas, Florida and Puerto Rico that were battered by hurricanes a year ago. Trump said in September that he would end by March 5 former Democratic President Barack Obama's Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program that protects the Dreamers from deportation.
After an all-night session of debating and voting, the bill ending the shutdown finally won House passage only after Democrats provided enough votes to offset the opposition of 67 Republicans, a remarkable rebellion in the party's ranks. Ryan has said he is willing to address the future of young immigrants but has not laid out an exact timeline.